The main objective of this Annex is to investigate institutional change associated with Smart Grid deployment. Using the framework of transition management, this Annex shall aim at sparking off an international, coordinated trans-disciplinary research activity in the social sciences supporting and complementing technology oriented Smart Grid activities. This Annex also shall intend to collect information and knowledge from innovation studies, political sciences, institutional economics, sociology and energy law, and make it palpable for policymakers and other stakeholders. This Annex, in particular, shall aim at supporting policymakers in the field of Smart Grids by focusing on the direction, efficacy and efficiency of the energy system transition. In order to complement other ISGAN Annexes, non-technical aspects and framework conditions conducive to Smart Grid deployment are at its focus, by addressing societal needs, political governance, policies, regulatory aspects and human behavior taking into account the diversity of institutional structures and governance traditions of ISGAN countries.