Search Results for: "Annex 4"

December 16, 2017

Our Work

ISGAN emphasizes the importance of strong, reliable, resilient, flexible, and affordable power grids, supported by the digitalization of the electricity system for achievement of goals on the “grid edge” (e.g., integration of EVs, RE, energy storage, and demand side management)

Our Work

platea lacus fringilla cubilia erat ut sagittis eleifend, ornare accumsan ante laoreet erat venenatis ultricies. tempus torquent laoreet conubia sodales tellus vulputate cubilia, hendrerit tortor quam magna condimentum aliquam venenatis pharetra, quisque nisl metus aliquet ipsum senectus.

Ad mattis est tristique hac torquent fames habitasse massa, tempus diam tempus porttitor velit massa viverra netus, ultricies fringilla libero convallis accumsan adipiscing venenatis. sed quisque lacus vivamus orci eros fermentum dapibus torquent non tellus integer ad accumsan est habitasse, platea torquent feugiat interdum neque fames lacinia morbi nostra tellus class luctus sit lobortis.

Metus inceptos sed cursus et bibendum congue leo mattis risus fames, egestas risus lectus orci per eu varius scelerisque vulputate, cursus augue lacus eleifend semper ullamcorper quam eleifend netus.

Annex 1
Annex 2
Annex 3
Annex 4
Annex 5
Annex 6
Annex 7
Annex 8

read more

February 16, 2015

Cost & Benefit Analysis and Toolkits

Introduction and Executive Summary The objective of ISGAN’s Annex 3 is to develop a global framework and related analyses that can identify, define, and quantify in a standardized way the...

Introduction and Executive Summary

To meet the required objective of this Annex, a program of work is designed and it includes the following three tasks:

  • Task 1: Assess Current Network Maturity Model and Update data
  • Subtask 1.1: Trial application of two network maturity analysis tools and results discussion
  • Subtask 1.2: Development of the questionnaire for the assessment of the level of smartness of transmission and distribution networks
  • Task 2: Analyze Current Benefit-Cost Analytical Methodologies and Tools
    • Subtask 2.1: Analyzing benchmark benefit-cost frameworks and tools
    • Subtask 2.2: Model research to overcome limit of current BCA frameworks and tools
  • Task 3: Develop Toolkits to Evaluate Benefit-Costs
    • Subtask 3.1: Development of Simplified cost-benefits analysis tool
    • Subtask 3.2: Technical Analysis of current BCA took-kit and Modification of Simplified tool-kit

For Task I, the report goes through several maturity frameworks available, especially those of Software Engineering Institute (SEI) and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL). The SEI has developed a management tool that can be used to measure the current state of a smart grid project, aiming to help utilities to identify the target and build proper strategies to reach it. The tool, Smart Grid Maturity
Model (SGMM), utilizes a set of surveys called Smart Grid Compass. The drawback of this tool is the undocumented scoring method of the surveys once a result is obtained. Full assistance of an SGMM Navigator is required for the utility to understand and analyze the SGMM output. Meanwhile, the KUL introduce the characteristics, categories and key performance indicators of a smart electricity grid. The previous report also includes own survey methods developed by Annex III, although there has not much of progress after that.

For Task II, an extensive update of the BCA survey has been provided in the previous report. It started with various frameworks related to BCA, which include Frontier Economics and the Smart Grid Forum (SGF) in UK, Smart Grid Investment Model (SGIM) of SGRC, I
MPLAN Model, McKinsey Tool, and general overviews of EPRI’s methodology to BCA and its subsequent developments by DOE and JRC. After that, several BCA applications to country-specific or states cases are summarized. Some of the surveyed countries are Czech Republic, Netherland, Lithuania, Denmark, and USA states. For the comparison purpose, the summary for each case is carried out following some key points: background of the smart grid project, the methodology or toolkits used, the scope of the project (location, period, technologies), the list and definition of benefits and costs, and deliverables (results, recommendations, policy andregulations). The 1st year’s work of Task II can be compared with the previous year’s work in the sense that how EPRI guideline has any impact on the work development of JRC and DOE frameworks, especially for the Smart Grid Computational Tool (SGCT), a BCA toolkit that is developed by US DOE. This report summarizes the findings from the previous works with the focus of selecting the benchmark smart grid tool kit for the development of own ISGAN tool kit for member countries.

For Task III, a simplified cost-benefit analysis tool is being developed taking SGCT of DOE as a benchmark tool kit, based on the previous year report on the development plan of ISGAN member countries’ toolkit. A standalone program based on Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is now being developed replicating, revising and upgrading the currently available excel-based SGCT. As will be discussed, this tool kit has various advantages over other tools: First, this tool is open to public and anyone can take a look inside of the model deep enough to examine the visual basic application modules. JRCEU, McKinsey models were once discussed in Annex III before for any potential utilization for ISGAN member countries’ tool kit. However, members acknowledge the fact that JRC works on excel based format and there seems to be not much difference between JRC’s work and DOE. The difference lies in the fact that JRC never opened up the details of the functionalities and sample calculation of BC in their whole work process. McKinsey software was discussed but it is not open to public. Rather it is a commercial package with no specific advantage over to SGCT of DOE. Detailed engine is not fully explained and the scope of the analysis the tool kit provides does not seem to be very useful (Nigris 2012, Kim 2013). The new tool kit being developed is named for the time being as ‘Replicated Tool Kit’ for convenience. Through the replication process, a lot of details have been identified, which, otherwise, would not have been known to us. Many of the parameters utilized in the process of benefitcalculation may be required to be collected from outside, reflecting the region specific characteristics. Some of the default values provided by SGCT, although they are from USA case (refer to Appendix), may also be useful until those detailed information becomes available for ISGAN member countries even when they don’t have them.

In addition, there a at least 12 smart grid projects currently being conducted in USA (refer to III.2.24), and those projects are starting to produce some detailed information which might be potentially utilized by current SGCT. Not only those advantages, there are many interesting researches being conducted around the world and the work results could be very useful sources of updating this replication effort in the future, once this replication process allows us to identify the pros and cons of the current model. The last chapter of the Expansion of Smart Grid Computational Tool is the wild idea of what could be accomplished in this whole process of simplified own ISGAN tool kit for member countries. Some of the ideas for the tool kit development become clearer as the process of the replication progresses. By the time of the completion of this year’s work, we hope to have a very concrete idea on how to proceed to further develop this current work in the future for the benefit of every member country in ISGAN.

read more

May 31, 2018

Power Systems

Power T&D Systems accelerate development and deployment of Smart Grid technologies and promote adoption of related enabling regulatory and government policies

Power Transmission & Distribution Systems

The main objective of this annex is to establish a long term vision for the development of the future sustainable power systems.

Annex 6 on Power Transmission & Distribution Systems focuses on system-related challenges, with emphasis on the technologies, market solutions, and policies which contribute to the development of system solutions.

The work is carried out by a global network of experts and is managed in four Focus Areas:

Focus Area 1: Expansion Planning and Market Analysis

Lead: Gianluigi Migliavacca (RSE)

With the aim of studying the functioning of electricity markets (day-ahead and real time) and to analyse the evolution of the transmission and distribution networks and their planning modalities.

Focus Area 2: Technology Trends and Deployment

Lead: Emil Hillberg (RISE)

Identify the potential and feasibility of new innovative solutions that support the operation and hosting capacity of the transmission and distribution grids, make recommendations and support demonstration, promotion and deployment of new promising technologies worldwide.

Focus Area 3: System Operation and Security

Lead: Kjetil Uhlen (NTNU)

Identification and assessment of new innovative methods and tools for operational monitoring and control, targeting the future challenges in balancing control and security analysis. Make recommendations and support demonstration, promotion and deployment of promising solutions worldwide.

Focus Area 4: Transmission and Distribution System Interaction

Lead: Antony Zegers (AIT)

Studies on how distribution and transmission networks could interact in the future, ensuring stable grid operation under high levels of renewables


Operating Agent
Technical Lead


Joni Rossi

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Emil Hillberg

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Tel: +46725649575

[Lead] SwedenIreland
DenmarkSouth Africa
GermanyUnited States

read more

December 20, 2017

Policy Insights

Annex 4: Synthesis of Insights for Decision Makers Organization of knowledge, key issues, important themes, insightful analysis for the benefit of decision makers....

Synthesis for Decision Makers


Given the wide variety of definitions and conceptual models for smart grid technologies and systems, quickly increasing body of literature and analysis, and rapid rate of change in the smart grid space, senior decision makers and their staff would likely benefit from a common basis or language for discussion. To this end, this Annex integrates the knowledge and lessons learned through the other ISGAN Annexes. This material may be delivered through a variety of media, such as reports, web sites, or videos, as appropriate for the specific information and targeted audience. It may be structured for specific geographies or grid ecosystems. Ultimately, information packages that explain clearly and concisely smart grid benefits and costs (and offer an intuitive, pleasing user experience) will help capture the attention of these decision makers and provide them the information needed to advance more effective smart grid-enabling policies and programs.



The core objectives of Annex 4: Synthesis of Insights for Decision Makers are to organize knowledge, identify key issues, distill important themes, and provide insightful analysis for the benefit of policymakers. It will highlight existing lessons learned and best practices on smart grid and seek to integrate and package knowledge in a form that will be useful and used by the target audience. Moreover, this Annex will consolidate and disseminate the efforts of other ISGAN Annexes, as well as smart grid efforts beyond ISGAN when appropriate, in support of greater reach and impact.


Current Activities

For the 2018-2019 timeframe, we are focusing on the following activities:

  • Deep-dive, peer-to-peer workshops on exchanging best practices on smart grid deployment enabled via policies, regulations, programs, and public-private partnerships
  • Development of and building capacity to implement a corporate ISGAN Communications Strategy
  • Additional work on policy insights and analysis delivered through synthesis papers and webinars
  • Support for intecannex coordination and collaboration


Past Work

Highlights of past work include:

  • Policy insight reports and webinars on the role of smart grids in integrating renewable and variable energy, smart grid cyber security, smart grid technology as an enabler of clean energy, and managing consumer benefits and costs
  • Implementation of in-depth knowledge transfer workshops in Mexico and India to inform national smart grid strategies
Working Group Lead
Operating Agent


Gun-Bae Park

KEPCO Senior Manager
Tel: (+82)-61-345-3964


Chloe Yoon

Korea Smart Grid Institute (KSGI)
Tel: (+82) 2-2138-1728

Republic of Korea - Working Group LeadIreland
Belgiumthe Netherlands
European Commission Singapore

read more

June 28, 2016

Spotlight on Smart and Strong Electric Power Infrastructure Best practice shared from the ISGAN Annex 6 case book

The introduction in the generation mix of a continuously increasing share of generation from renewable energy sources (RES), the geographical spread of generation when increasing the amount of distributed production, as well as changing patterns of demand from new types of load such as electric vehicles, will create new challenges for the electric power transmission and distribution (T&D) systems.

The case book Spotlight on Smart and Strong Power T&D Infrastructure spotlights a number of projects sharing best practices to meet challenges for the power systems to become stronger and smarter.

Many different approaches are possible to meet these challenges and the regulators have a key role in supporting the development towards clean sustainable solutions.
Different countries have different challenges, will use different solutions to those challenges, and have reached different maturity in the implementation of those solutions. Smart grid solutions are also found across the entire electrical system, from the high voltage transmission grid, through the distribution grid and finally on consumer level. It is therefore no generic solution or size that fits all for the solution towards the smart and strong grid. At the same time there are generic solutions and findings from experiences that can be adapted by other countries to make local implementation faster and more efficient.

December 21, 2017


Smart Grid Transitions Preparation of a prototype of a smart grids foresight process to help policy makers to orchestrate a sustainable transition. Evaluation of processes of market forming, actor involvement and integration

Smart Grid Transitions

The main objective of this Annex is to investigate institutional change associated with Smart Grid deployment. Using the framework of transition management, this Annex shall aim at sparking off an international, coordinated trans-disciplinary research activity in the social sciences supporting and complementing technology oriented Smart Grid activities. This Annex also shall intend to collect information and knowledge from innovation studies, political sciences, institutional economics, sociology and energy law, and make it palpable for policymakers and other stakeholders. This Annex, in particular, shall aim at supporting policymakers in the field of Smart Grids by focusing on the direction, efficacy and efficiency of the energy system transition. In order to complement other ISGAN Annexes, non-technical aspects and framework conditions conducive to Smart Grid deployment are at its focus, by addressing societal needs, political governance, policies, regulatory aspects and human behavior taking into account the diversity of institutional structures and governance traditions of ISGAN countries.

Operating Agent


Klaus Kubeczko

AIT - Austrian Insitute of Technology

[Lead] Austria France

read more

May 16, 2017

Why We Do Not Know Much about the Social Dimension of Smart Grids Transition?

Dealing with smart grids transitions, three years of activity of Annex 7 make it evident that policy makers are having many important questions about the dynamics of institutional change which...

However, rather than being able to provide ready-made answers about the institutional and social dimensions of smart grids, much more can be said about what-we-don’t-know. We identified two main reasons why we do not know enough about smart grid transition.

  1. The structural challenge is that energy research is mainly focusing on technologies for the physical grid with little knowledge on institutional change and the social dimension of energy transition.
    In an article in Nature, B.K. Sovacool (Vol 511, 2014) examined the scope of more than 4400 articles in leading energy technology and energy policy journals over 15 years. He identified four trends which he evaluates as worrisome if not tackled by public and private organizations and the scientific community:
    a. An underevaluation of influence of social dimensions on energy use,
    b. A bias towards science, engineering and economics over other social sciences and humanities,
    c. A lack of interdisciplinary collaboration and
    d. The underrepresentation of female authors or those of minority groups
    This corresponds to the challenges identified in developing a strategic research agenda for Smart Grids Transitions of Annex 7. The European Commission in its Horizon 2020 research and innovation program tries to address this issue by encouraging SSH research to be taken up in energy research projects. An interim evaluation2 shows the low level of SSH research with the main part going to economic research. Other disciplines are hardly visible and there is a significant geographical divide between countries in taking up the possibility to integrate SSH research.
    There is the need to insert the social and environmental dimensions in the projects of smart grid deployment as well as in the decision making processes needed to select the most appropriate solutions. It is not enough that projects be perfect from the technical and economics point of view, they should be based on a sound social analysis and include specific actions to take into consideration the concerns, needs, and expectations of citizens and consumers.
  2. Although the political will to further increase the public energy-R&D investment in the CEM countries substantially exists, statistical evidence shows a stagnation of energy related social-science-humanities R&D investment at a very low level.
    R&D statistics (OECD/IEA, EU – Horizon 2020) indicate that increases in public R&D spending over the last years did not lead to a more balanced resource-attribution for all research disciplines. Particularly, research resources for social sciences and humanities (SSH) have not yet received the attention it would require to learn more about embedding technological development in the economic and societal environment (e.g. on energy use, or on how future markets will look like).3
    Although the obstacles of data accuracy exacerbate the analysis, still two statements can be made:
    a. The share of R&D from SSH in the area of energy4 in OECD countries has been fluctuating significantly over the last years. When adding up all reported country figures between 0.1% and 9% during the period of 1974 and 20155.
    b. If at all, SSH-research capacities and funding in absolute terms is growing with much less speed than in engineering and natural sciences.
    Given the high uncertainties, how global energy transition should take place and the lack of orientation where technological development should lead to, SSH research will be needed even more urgently than in times of relative stability of the energy system.
    The intention of Mission Innovation, to double public clean-energy R&D investment over five years, is an encouraging signal for R&D actors and will likely lead to structural changes in the research and innovation-eco-system. However it remains to be seen, if this could also lead to a substantial rise in the knowledge about the social dimension of smart grids, without a political will to provide significant resources for SSH research as well as the appropriate R&D instruments.
    The following conclusion and recommendations can be drawn from this analysis:
  • Significantly more inter- and transdisciplinary research activities in social sciences and humanities are needed.
  • More attention has to be laid on generating know-how on social dimensions of technological and institutional transformation of energy systems and markets.
  • Financial resources for SSH research need to be raised at least as much as for technological development and the respective R&D capacities and infrastructures need to be built up sustainably. Collaboration and strategic research agendas should be coordinated amongst CEM-countries.
  • There is an urgent need for more accurate statistical data on SSH in energy research.

read more

October 8, 2018

ISGAN Annual Report 2017

Implementing Agreement for a Co-Operative Programme on Smart Grids. Annual Report 2017 for the period from March 1st 2017 to February 28th, 2018

Key Achievements in 2017

• Being a CEM initiative and IEA TCP, ISGAN continues to be a trusted partner and a center of expertise for
a growing number of Smart Grid-related activities and events, such as India Smart Grid Week and the
European Utility Week.
• A workshop on “Smart Grids Transitions – System Solutions and Consumer Behavior” and corresponding
conference and dialogue sessions on socio-economic framework conditions for the replication of Smart
Grid solutions were organized at the 8th International Sustainability Transition Conference Gothenburg,
Sweden, in June 2017.
• ISGAN has co-hosted several webinars with the Clean Energy Solutions Center and co-organized highly
recognized public workshops, such as “Building the Flexible Power Systems” in Genk, Belgium in September
2017, co-hosted by Belgium’s FPS Economy, SME, Self-Employed and Energy and EnergyVille, and
supported by the Global Smart Grid Federation (GSGF).
• ISGAN’s Annex 2 conducted a successful knowledge transfer project (KTP) workshop during the 14th
meeting of the Executive Committee in Genk, Belgium, in September 2017. The hands-on workshop
caused a great interest among the ISGAN community and secured plans for future workshop editions (see
Highlight on page 15).
• In partnership with India’s Ministry of Power, Powergrid Corporation of India, Ltd, and Central Power Research
Institute, two ISGAN working groups organized a knowledge exchange event in Bangalore, India
in November 2017. The event brought together leading Indian and international participants from public
and private sectors as well as from academia. The experts exchanged best practices on catalyzing Smart
Grid developments in the area of local grids, especially focusing on the integration of distributed renewable
energy sources and deployment of microgrids.
• ISGAN’s working group on power transmission and distribution systems (Annex 6) supported knowledge
sharing on opportunities for more flexible electricity grids through its discussion papers on system efficiency
and a single marketplace for flexibility.
• ISGAN’s working group on cost-benefit analyses and toolkits (Annex 3) completed its assessment of cost
benefit analysis (CBA) applied to large-scale Smart Grids projects. It defined new metrics to properly
consider asymmetrically shared impacts and benefits and developed a new tool based on a combination of
multi-criteria analysis (MCA) and CBA.
• The ISGAN Academy (Annex8) has been launching new webinars on Smart Grids topics presented by leading
experts in the field every few months.

read more

December 20, 2017

Case Studies

Smart Grid Case Studies and In-Depth Knowledge Sharing National Drivers for Smart Grids and best practices for implementation.

Smart Grid Case Studies

Currently, Annex 2 has two priority workstreams, the first of which is an assessment of current case studies on smart grid deployments. This includes creation of a common methodological framework for future case studies based on this assessment, and development of in-depth case studies using this framework. Capturing and communicating the lessons learned from real-life demonstration or deployment projects will help stakeholders understand the true promise and challenges of deploying smarter electricity grids. Such case studies will provide another layer of depth to the information available in the Global Smart Grid Inventory and provide data and metrics to inform development of benefit-cost analyses and decision-making tools under that Annex. Published case books are as follows. (click to see)



A second key work stream is enabling in-depth peer-to-peer knowledge sharing. More information on the Knowledge Transfer Project can be found here.

Operating Agent
Working Group Lead


Aram An

Korea Smart Grid Institute (KSGI)
Tel: (+82)2-2138-1736

Junghyo Bae

Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute

[Lead] Republic of KoreaIreland
CanadaThe Netherlands
European CommissionSpain
GermanyUnited States

read more

October 15, 2018

16th Executive Committee Of The International Smart Grid Action Network – Vienna, 15-19 October 2018

It is with great pleasure that the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT) invites you to the 16th Executive Committee of the International Smart Grid Action Network (ISGAN) which will take place 15-17 October 2018, in Vienna (Austria).

It is with great pleasure that the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT) invites the members of the Executive Committee and the Annex-Operating Agents to the 16th Executive Committee of the International Smart Grid Action Network (ISGAN) which will take place 15-17 October 2018, in Vienna (Austria).

Following the Executive Committee meeting, you can participate in the International Conference on Integration of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources (IRED 2018), taking place 17-19 October, as well as the new edition of the Knowledge Transfer (KTP) Workshop (October 18, afternoon – October 19, morning), which you are kindly invited to.

All Members of the Executive Committee and Annex-Operating Agents are asked to register for the ExCo meeting and for a reduced registration for IRED2018 in the for below. Please note that you need to create an account first and can then choose for which events to register for.

(Registration option closed)

read more

May 28, 2015

Spotlight on Smart and Strong Electric Power Infrastructure – Summary

This paper summarize a number of smart-grid cases from the case book within ISGAN Annex 6: Power T&D Systems....

The case book Spotlight on Smart and Strong Power T&D Infrastructure spotlights a number of projects sharing best practice in how to meet the challenge to develop the electricity network to become stronger and smarter using different approaches.

For example how:

  • Existing and new AC power transmission lines can carry more power by the use of smart technologies such as WAMS and Synchrophasors.
  • HVDC lines with Voltage Source Converters can be used for interconnectors that also support the existing grid e.g. by avoiding voltage collapse.
  •  The use of smart voltage control concepts can increase the hosting capacity for distributed energy resources

read more

December 20, 2017


Global Smart Grid Inventory Identify gaps, opportunities, synergies among smart grid activities and programmes. Catalogue the wide range of smart grid activities underway, mapping the actual activities against the drivers and interests.

Global Smart Grid Inventory (Completed)

Many participating ISGAN countries are already developing, demonstrating, testing, and deploying smart grid technologies and systems, drafting policies and implementing regulations to advance smart grids, assessing current and projected transmission and delivery infrastructure needs, evaluating demand-side practices, and measuring other aspects of smart grids. In addition, many bilateral and regional cooperative efforts have been launched featuring smart grid as a significant or principal focus. The objective of this activity is to identify countries’ specific motivating drivers for pursuing smart grids, catalogue the wide range of smart grid activities underway, and collect and organize the wealth of experience being generated into a resource available first to ISGAN Participants and then a global audience. The ENARD Implementing Agreement has already started similar inventory work, through its Annex V, recently launched. Thus, close coordination will be sought with that and other relevant inventory efforts. It is expected that all signatories will contribute data and information to this Annex.

Operating Agent


Paul Wang


[Lead] United StatesItaly
BelgiumRepublic of Korea
CanadaThe Netherlands
European CommissionSingapore

read more

February 27, 2017

Spotlight on Smart and Strong Power T&D Infrastructure

This case book, prepared by ISGAN Annex 6 (Power T&D System), is a result of a comprehensive process of surveying, analysing and discussing important achievements in the application of smart...

The case book Spotlight on Smart and Strong Power T&D Infrastructure highlights experiences of countries in different parts of the world, as they performed transmission and distribution projects on their electrical systems. The projects illustrate a wide range of applications, solutions, and technologies that were used to meet the challenges that various countries were facing. Many of the projects focused on the need to manage the integration of large amounts of renewable and often intermittent energy sources.

Additional projects will be added progressively in future editions of the case book.

The first edition of the case book was published in 2015. It includes eight cases, based on information collected during 2014 and 2015.

The second edition was published in 2016 and contains an aditional five cases. Case book summaries in Spanish and English are provided for the second edition .


read more

August 28, 2013

Smarter & Stronger Power Transmission: Review of feasible technologies for enhanced capacity and flexibility

Transmission and distribution (T&D) systems are facing new challenges linked with the introduction in the generation mix of a progressively increasing share of unpredictable energy sources and variable generation from renewable energy sources (RES).

Changing patterns of demand that new types of load such as electric vehicles (EV) will introduce large and unpredictable fluctuations in the power balance as well as variations in voltage can jeopardize the quality and availability of power. The T&D system has to be stronger and smarter to provide the real-time flexibility needed to efficiently handle the new conditions. Investment needs in the power T&D infrastructure are large and require long term planning and deployment. The environmental concerns and public acceptance issues that often arise when constructing additional conventional transmission lines will require more efficient solutions with lower environmental impact.

This Discussion Paper from ISGAN Annex 6 Power Transmission & Distribution Systems Task 3 and 4 focuses on “Smarter & Stronger Power Transmission” and is a review of feasible technologies for enhanced transmission capacity and flexibility in terms of status and deployment. This includes both the primary AC and DC technology for the high voltage transmission grid as well as the information and communication technology (ICT) required to efficiently supervise and operate the power system. Focus is on the development of power electronics including flexible AC transmission (FACTS) and high voltage DC (HVDC), the standardization within ICT such as IEC 61850 and Common Information Model (CIM) in order to obtain vendor independent interoperability as well as the progress of wide area monitoring, protection and control (WAMPAC). The combination of smarter ICT applications together with power electronics such as FACTS and HVDC can be described as a digitalization of the power system operation offering the required flexibility. Most of the examples given are from the Nordic European power system, reflecting the participation of the authors from ISGAN Annex 6 Task 3 and 4, with additional input from North America and selected International case studies.

read more

July 28, 2015

Why the TSO-DSO Relationship Needs to Evolve

A number of emerging trends indicate that the interaction between transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution network operators (DSO) will evolve in the coming years.

Examples of these trends are the electrification of energy consumption and the increasing volume of distributed generation being connected to the distribution grid.

The relationship between transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution network operators (DSO) is changing. Examples of these trends are the electrification of energy consumption and the increasing volume of distributed generation being connected to the distribution grid. In Europe this subject is highly relevant as pointed out by ENSTO-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity) in their paper, Towards smarter grids: Developing TSO and DSO roles and interactions for the benefit of consumers published in March 2015, and ACER (Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators) in their conclusions paper, Energy Regulation: A Bridge to 2025 published in September 2014. ENTSO-E is an association which represents 41 European TSOs and has an objective to promote closer cooperation across Europe’s TSOs to support the implementation of EU energy policy objectives of affordability, sustainability and security of supply. ACER is an agency of the European Union with the overall mission to complement and coordinate the work of national energy regulators at EU level, and to work towards the completion of the single EU energy market for electricity and natural gas. The expected increased interaction between TSOs and DSOs will result in both technical and non-technical challenges.

IEA ISGAN Annex 6 has published a discussion paper in which the current and future cooperation between TSOs and DSOs has been investigated. Six critical grid operation challenges have been identified:
1. Congestion of the transmission-distribution interface
2. Congestion of transmission lines and distribution lines
3. Voltage support (TSO↔DSO)
4. Balancing challenge
5. (Anti-)Islanding, re-synchronization, and black-start
6. Coordinated protection

For each case, country experts provided first-hand information about the status and expected development of TSO-DSO interaction in their respective countries. This resulted in an overview, by country, of the interaction between grid operators and provided input for the discussion about how this interaction could evolve in years to come. Technical aspects, as well as policy aspects, have been taken into account.
The technical solutions required for a closer interaction between TSOs and DSOs are very similar for most of the identified cases, except for the case of islanding & black-start. From a high level viewpoint, grid monitoring has to be implemented, communication between TSO and DSO has to be established and means of communication between the DSO and its flexible customers have to be available. DSOs should also be able to perform (quasi) real time network simulations with input from measurements on the grid.
Such technical requirements should not be underestimated regarding implementation and operational cost, complexity and skills required. These could be a challenge, especially for smaller distribution network operators. Nonetheless, only the distribution grid operator has information about the actual grid configuration and grid loading. This means that even when other entities take up certain roles, for example the role of aggregator, the distribution network operator will always be responsible for monitoring the grid and will need to implement communication solutions to one entity or another.
With the current status of technology, technical requirements for an evolved interaction between TSOs and DSOs can be met. However, several non-technical issues, or points of discussion, have been identified which are closely related to the regulated environment grid operators are working in.

• Maintaining a balance between infrastructure investments and use of flexibility

Flexible demand and generation can be used to support grid operation and avoid infrastructure investments. A minimum use of flexibility will be necessary to avoid over investing, but the impact on the processes and business cases of flexible customers has to be limited. The flexibility available by curtailing renewable energy sources needs to be limited to avoid a high loss of renewable energy.

• The role of markets
Which grid operation challenges should be met by introducing markets and which should be managed only by technical means and appropriate bilateral contracts? It is proposed to use market mechanisms only for the balancing challenge, which is applied today in various countries. Coping with local grid operation challenges such as critical transformer loading, line loading and voltages, is proposed to be managed by the network operators, optimally interacting with each other and using flexible customers when necessary. Because of the local nature of the mentioned grid operation challenges, markets would not work efficiently. Instead, a regulatory framework is required for bilateral contracts between flexible customers and network operators, facilitating the use of flexible generation and demand for grid operation purposes.


• Setting a level playing field for flexibility
When the combined flexibility of customers on the distribution and transmission grid is used, favoring one set of customers at the cost of the other should be avoided. For example, when facing critical line loading on the transmission grid, the use of flexibility of only distribution connected customers would be undesirable. Some mechanism, probably in discussion with the regulator, should be implemented to cope with this.

• The role of regulation
Closely related to the previous statement is the discussion point on how grid operation should evolve:
more regulated, with clearer and stricter roles, or more open, with guaranteed interaction between grid operators and new market players? There is no one size fits all solution but in any case, a clear definition of the roles and responsibilities of all participants in future grid operation will be necessary and will serve as a good start.
A clear policy framework will, in every case, push forward investments in Smart Grid solutions to deal with the discussed challenges that grid operators are facing.
The article is based on a discussion paper published by IEA ISGAN Annex 6.

read more

December 21, 2017

Spotlight on customer engagement and empowerment

The Case Book includes 10 cases on Consumer Engagement & Empowerment of the top 10 winning projects from the 1st ISGAN Awards Competition. Countries that are included in the CaseBook are Belgium, Denmark, France, Japan, Portugal, Netherlands, and USA.  

The objective of Annex 2 is to assess outstanding examples of current case studies, develop and validate a common case study template and methodological framework, and then develop in – depth case studies using this framework. The template is currently the “Case Book” to contain
descriptive information. The common frame work for case studies will allow comparison and contrast of policies and technologies adopted in different regulatory, legislative, network (grid), and natural environments. The overarching aim is to collect enough information from case studies around the world to extract lessons learned and best practices as well as foster future collaboration among participating countries. The Consumer Engagement Case Book reflects one way that ISGAN brings together experts and stakeholders from around the world to increase the awareness of consumer engagement in the field of smart grid.

Customer engagement and empowerment offers opportunities to save energy for customers and to operate the grid in a more efficient and reliable way for grid operators. Grid operators want to shift or reduce energy consumptions during times of peak consumptions, so they have  engaged and empowered customers to do that by proposing some benefits.
Cases of customer engagement and empowerment in this book share lessons learned in developing and deploying these technologies to  stakeholders.

read more

November 30, 2018

Flexibility In Future Power Systems

This poster was presented at the 8th International Conference on Integration of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources (IRED) in Vienna in October 2018.

The poster presents part of an ongoing work to improve the understanding of flexibility and the needs in the future power system

read more

September 13, 2018

New ISGAN Brochure

The new ISGAN Brochure give a full picture of ISGAN and its Annexes...

The brochure covers on the one side the key accomplishments and the contracting parties of ISGAN but also the objective, value proposition and organizational structure of ISGAN. In particular, the brochure also provides a one-page overview of the objectives and current activities for each individual Annex.


read more

December 16, 2017


Presidium, Secretariat and Operating Agent


The presidium acts as the board of ISGAN and has the mandate to steer and execute ISGAN ExCo decisions and actions.



Karin Widegren

Widegren Energy

Vice Chairs


Arun K. Mishra

National Smart Grid Mission


Russell Conklin

Department of Energy


Luciano Martini

RSE S.p.A. -- Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico

Operating Agent and Secretariat

Responsibilities and task for the OA and secretariat are:

  • Organization of bi-annual ExCo meetings, ExCo side events,
  • General support of the Presidium and Annex, managing ISGAN Common Fund
  • Internal communication, Website & media communication
  • Supporting working groups to promote consistency for external communication
Operating Agent


Werner Friedl

AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
Tel: (+43) 50550-0

Co-Secretariat (AIT)


Susanne Windischberger

AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
Tel: (+43) 50550-0


Ksenia Poplavskaya

AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
Tel: (+43) 50550-0

If you have any difficulties in accessing any of the information on this site, please send an E-Mail to our webmaster:


Korean Smart Grid Institute (KSGI) as Co-Secretariat is responsible for the following tasks:

  • Support CEM communication and events
  • ISGAN Award of Excellence Competition


Co-Secretariat (KSGI)


Aram An

Korea Smart Grid Institute (KSGI)
Tel: (+82)2-2138-1736


Chloe Yoon

Korea Smart Grid Institute (KSGI)
Tel: (+82) 2-2138-1728

IEA Desk Officer

ISGAN’s desk officer and point of communication with ISGAN:

IEA Desk Officer


Luis Munuera

International Energy Agency (IEA)
Tel: (+33) 1 4057 6768

read more

November 28, 2014

The role and interaction of microgrids and centralized grids in developing modern power systems

An extension of microgrids is now underway, primarily to allow increased electrification in growing economies but also to meet the need to reduce global CO2 emissions and to provide ancillary services to centralized grids.

Energy access constitutes one of the fundamental building blocks for economic growth as well as social equity in the modern world. Access to sustainable energy is needed to achieve sustainable development. A microgrid should not be seen as a competitor to the centralized grid but as a complement.

Through examination of several implemented cases from different parts of the world the following topics are considered:

  • Analysis of the interaction between centralized grids and microgrids
  • Analysis of stakeholder decision parameters for electrification
  • Analysis of design differences and requirements for microgrids, depending on the intended purpose and the need of the end customers

It is determined that good planning, suitable requirements and clear regulations for microgrids (in relation to centralized grids) limits the risk of stranded assets and enables better business cases for the involved stakeholders.
The paper is based on the discussion paper The role and interaction of microgrids and centralized grids in developing modern power systems – A case review publiced by ISGAN (International Smart Grid Action Network) Annex 6: Power T&D Systems.

read more